Photographic Composition

About: Paul Illsley

Photographic Composition

Here are some simple guidelines which will help you create great images. You may find that you can often use more than one guideline when recording an image. Remember, these are only guidelines and they should not limit your creativity. Feel free to record images any way you wish, that's what makes each picture unique.

Rule of Thirds:
This simple guideline has been used for centuries and is one of the most used composition techniques. Once you have been introduced to it you will be able to identify it's use in many of history's great paintings and photographs.. The "Rule of Thirds" simply states that an image can be divided into three horizontal sections and three vertical sections and that the four intersection points (shown in blue) formed by these transition lines (shown in green) are the best areas to place the important components of your image. One handy use of the Rule of Thirds is to place the horizon in an image near one of the two horizontal lines (you can also place vertical objects along the vertical lines). This helps to add a dynamic balance to your image.

    Foreground, Middle and Background:
    It is hard to recreate the illusion of depth in an image because our own vision allows us to see in 3D giving us a natural sense of depth which the camera does not. In order to recreate the illusion of depth on a flat photograph (or computer screen) we must learn to recreate it artifically. This is done by making sure you include something in your image that represents the foreground, middle ground and something which indicates objects in the distance. This "layering" helps to create the illusion of depth. The image of the horse located at the top of this page is a good example of the use of foreground, middle and background layering.

    Look around for something that will naturally frame the subject of your image. Objects like trees, branches, windows, door casings and flowers can be used to add a simple border to your image. These "frames" help keep the viewer's attention on the subject of the image.

    Leading Lines:
    Look for natural lines that will lead the viewer's eyes to the subject of the image. Streams, fences, roads, trails, bridges (to name only a few) can all be used to direct the viewer's attention to the subject of the image.

    Keep an eye out for patterns in nature. Geometric or reoccurring patterns often make interesting images. Think about only recording a portion of the full pattern, this leads the viewer to think that the pattern continues well outside the image area.

    Think about simplifying your image so there aren't any items that will distract from the focus of the scene. Try to keep the background simple and uncluttered (this is very important). You may have to move your shooting position in order to accomplish this but it will help bring attention to the important focus of your image. Be careful not to have prominent lines (buildings, trees, poles) intersect the subject of your image. These intersecting lines (called mergers) will distract attention from your subject and can make for a confusing image.

    Point of View:
    Be prepared to change your position in order to record that interesting image. You may have to stand on a fence, lay on the ground, kneel behind a bush or climb a rock to get that unique angle. It is often best to get on the same level as your subject. If you are photographing mushrooms or insects you may need to lay on the ground in order to get that interesting perspective. Be creative and look for interesting vantage points. You may have to do some work to get the right angle but your efforts will pay off in the long run.

      It is often useful to add something in the image to offer a sense of scale.

        Patience and Curiosity:
        Be patient, not all of your images will become award winners but if you practice these simple guidelines you will find that more and more of your images will become works of art. Practice makes perfect. Pay attention to the things that work and those that don't. Learn from your mistakes and successes. Play with your camera and explore the scene you are photographing. You may find yourself laying on your back photographing a flower from underneath, or you might find yourself standing on a rock in order to get that great shot. Before you record every image ask yourself "am I being creative" and "could I record this image another way". Whatever you find yourself attempting, make sure you have fun.

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